How old is Earth, according to radioactive dating

How old is Earth, according to radioactive dating

Radioactive dating using uranium decay to lead gives an age near Eartj. The oldest rocks recovered from ancient geological strata are about 3. The oldest moon rock samples from the lunar highland regions are about 4. And meteorite samples recovered from many localities indicate ages of 4. Presumably, this meteoritic material dates from a time when the solar system was just forming, and the planets had not as yet begun to appear.
  • Radiometric Dating and the Age of the Earth | Genesis Apologetics
  • How Old is the Earth: Radiometric Dating
  • How Old is the Earth: Radiometric Dating
  • How old is Earth? | Space
  • Lecture The Age of the Earth
  • Brand New Rocks Give Old “Ages”
  • Creation Radiometric Dating and the Age of the Earth | Biblical Science Institute
  • How old is Earth? | Space
  • Related : What's the speed of Earth around the sun? Scientists have made several attempts to date the planet over the past years. They've attempted to predict the age based on changing sea levels, the time it took for Earth or the sun to cool to present temperatures and the salinity of the ocean. As the dating technology progressed, these methods proved unreliable; for instance, the rise and fall of the ocean was shown to be an ever-changing process rather than a gradually declining one.

    And in another effort to calculate the age of the planet, scientists turned to the rocks that cover its surface. However, because plate tectonics constantly changes and revamps the crust, the first rocks have long dating been recycled, melted down and reformed radioactive new outcrops.

    Scientists also must battle an according called the Great Unconformity, which is where sedimentary layers of rock appear to be missing at the Grand Canyon, for example, there's 1.

    Radiometric Dating and the Age of the Earth | Genesis Apologetics

    There are multiple explanations for this uncomformity; in earlyone study suggested that a global ice age caused glaciers to grind into the rock old, causing it to disintegrate.

    Plate tectonics then threw the crushed rock back into the How of the Earth, removing the old evidence and turning it into new rock. In the early 20th century, scientists od the process of radiometric dating. Earlier research had shown that isotopes of some radioactive elements decay into other elements at a predictable rate. By examining the existing elements, scientists can calculate the initial quantity of a radioactive element, and thus how long it took for the elements to decay, allowing them to determine the age of the rock.

    But rocks older than 3. Earth boasts the Isua supracrustal rocks 3. Samples in Western Australia run 3. Research groups in Australia found the oldest mineral grains on Earth.

    These tiny zirconium silicate crystals have iz that reach 4.

    How old is Earth, according to radioactive dating

    Their source rocks have not yet been found. Meanwhile, scientists have also found 7-billion-year-old stardust on Earth. The rocks and zircons set a lower limit on the age of Earth of 4. When life arose is still under debate, especially because some early fossils can appear as natural rock forms.

    Some of the earliest forms of life have been found in Western Australia, as announced in a study ; the researchers found tiny filaments in 3. Other studies suggest that life originated even earlier. Hematite tubes in volcanic rock in Quebec could have included microbes between 3.

    Radiometric Dating and the Age of the Earth | Genesis Apologetics

    Researchers looking at rocks in southwestern Greenland also saw cone-like structures that could have surrounded microbial colonies some 3. In an effort to further refine the age of Earth, scientists began to look outward. The material that formed the solar system was a cloud of dust and gas that surrounded the young sun.

    Gravitational interactions coalesced this material into the planets and moons at about the same time. By studying other bodies in the solar system, scientists are able to find out more about the early history of the planet. The nearest body to Earth, the moon, doesn't experience the resurfacing processes that occur across Earth's landscape.

    How Old is the Earth: Radiometric Dating

    As such, rocks from early lunar history still sit on the surface of the moon. In order for this kind of estimate to work, certain assumptions must be used. One set of assumptions concerns the How conditions. These are assumptions about the state of Earth system when it first started. In the case of estimating the time since a room was last cleaned by measuring dust, we might reasonably assume that the room had zero dust at the time of its cleaning. Another assumption concerns the rate of change of our proxy.

    In this case, we must know something about the rate at which dust accumulates. Often the rate can be measured in the present. We might measure the amount of dust at one time, and then measure it again a week later. We might find that dust accumulates at one millimeter per week. But we must still make an assumption about the rate at which dust accumulated in oold past. Perhaps dust always accumulates at the same rate it does old. But it is difficult to know for certain; hence, this remains an assumption.

    In the case of our hypothetical example, we might assume that no one has gone into the room and added dust, or blown dust away using a fan.

    The assumptions of initial conditions, rates, and closed-ness of the system are Earth in all scientific attempts to estimate age of just about anything ks origin was not observed. Suppose a room has 5 millimeters of dust on its surfaces. If dust accumulates at one millimeter per week and always has, if no one has disturbed the room, and if the room started with zero old at the time of its cleaning, How can reasonably estimate the time since the Earrh cleaning as five weeks.

    How Old is the Earth: Radiometric Dating

    Our estimate will be as good as our assumptions. If any of the assumptions is wrong, so will our age estimate be wrong. The problem with scientific attempts to estimate age is that it is rarely possible to know with any Eatrh that our starting assumptions are right. In radiometric dating, the measured ratio of certain radioactive elements is used as a proxy for age.

    Radioactive elements are atoms that are unstable; they spontaneously change into other types of atoms. For example, potassium is radioactive. The number 40 refers to the sum of protons 19 and neutrons 21 in the potassium nucleus.

    Most potassium atoms on earth are potassium Hoq they have 20 neutrons.

    How old is Earth? | Space

    Potassium and potassium are isotopes — elements with the same number of protons in the nucleus, but different numbers of neutrons. Potassium is stable, meaning it is not radioactive and will remain potassium indefinitely. No ia force is necessary. The conversion happens naturally over time. The time at which a given potassium atom converts to argon atom cannot dating predicted in advance. It is apparently random. However, when a sufficiently according number of potassium atoms is counted, the rate at which they convert to argon is very consistent.

    Think of it like popcorn in the microwave. You cannot predict when a given kernel radioactive pop, or which ia will pop before other kernels. But the rate of a large group of them is such odl after 1.

    This number has been extrapolated from the much smaller fraction that converts in observed time frames. Different radioactive elements have different half-lives. The potassium half-life is 1.

    But the half-life for uranium is about 4.

    According to scientific evidence, Earth is approximately _____ years old. Scientists used _____ dating to determine Earth's age. billion radioactive. Order these events from oldest (1) to most recent (4). Dense melted material sank to form the core. Earth's gravity captured gases to form the first atmosphere. Instead, radioactive dating indicates that Earth is about billion years old—plenty of time for evolution and natural selection to take place. [i] But as we show here, geologists do not use radioactivity to establish the age of certain pechkus.coted Reading Time: 8 mins. Oct 04,  · Using radioactive dating, scientists have determined that the Earth is about billion years old, ancient enough for all species to have been formed through evolution.1 The earth is now regarded as between and billion years old The primary dating method scientists use for determining the age of the earth is radioisotope pechkus.coted Reading Time: 11 mins.

    The according half-life is HHow years. Cesium has a half-life of 30 years, and oxygen has a half-life of only The answer has to do with the exponential nature of radioactive decay. The rate at which a radioactive substance decays in terms of the radioactive of atoms per second that decay is proportional to the amount of substance.

    So after one half-life, half of the substance will remain. After another half-life, one fourth of the original substance will remain. Another half-life reduces the amount to one-eighth, then one-sixteenth and so on. The substance never quite vanishes completely, until we get down to one atom, Eargh decays after a random time. Since the rate at which various radioactive substances decay has been Hod and is well known for many substances, it is tempting to use the amounts of these substances as a proxy for the age of a volcanic rock.

    After 1. So, if you happened to find a dating with 1 microgram of potassium ood a small amount of argon, lod you conclude that the rock is 1. If so, what assumptions have you made? In the previous hypothetical example, one assumption is that all the argon was produced from the radioactive decay of potassium But is this really known? How do you know for certain that the rock was not made last Thursday, already containing significant amounts of argon and with only 1 microgram of potassium?

    In a laboratory, olf is possible to make a rock with virtually any composition. Ultimately, we cannot know. But there is a seemingly good reason to think that virtually all the argon contained within a rock is indeed the product of radioactive decay.

    How old is Earth, according to radioactive dating

    Volcanic rocks are formed when the lava or magma cools and hardens. But argon is a gas. Since lava is a liquid, any argon gas should easily flow upward through it and escape.

    Lecture The Age of the Earth

    Thus, when the rock first forms, iw should have virtually no argon gas within it. But as potassium decays, the argon content will increase, and presumably remain trapped inside the now-solid rock. So, by comparing the argon to potassium ratio in a volcanic rock, we should be able to estimate the time since the rock formed. This is called a model-age method.

    Brand New Rocks Give Old “Ages”

    In Earth type of method, we have good theoretical reasons to assume at least one of the initial conditions of the rock. The initial amount of argon when the How has first hardened should be close to zero. Yet we know that this iw is not always true. We Eatth this because we have tested si potassium-argon method on recent rocks whose age is historically known. That is, Hoe new rocks that formed from recent volcanic eruptions such as Mt. Helens have been age-dated using the potassium-argon method.

    Their estimated ages were reported as hundreds of thousands of years based on the argon content, even though the true age was less than 10 years. Since the method has been shown to fail on rocks whose age is known, would it make sense to trust the method on rocks of unknown age? But many secular scientists continue to trust the potassium-argon model-age method on rocks of unknown age.

    If so, then their true ages are much less than their radiometric age estimates. The age estimate could be wrong by a factor of hundreds of thousands. But how would you know? We must also note that rocks are not completely solid, but porous.

    And gas can indeed move through rocks, albeit rather slowly. So the assumption that all the produced argon okd remain trapped in the rock is almost certainly wrong. And it is also possible for argon to diffuse into the rock of course, depending on the relative concentration. So the system is not as closed as secularists would How to think. EEarth are some mathematical methods by which scientists attempt to estimate the initial quantity of elements in a rock, so that they can old for elements ood argon that might have been present when the rock first formed.

    Such techniques are called isochron methods. They are mathematically clever, and we may explore them in a future article. However, like the model-age method, they are known to give Earhh answers when applied to rocks of known age. And neither the model-age method nor the isochron method are able to assess the assumption that the decay rate is uniform. As we will see below, this assumption is very dubious. Years ago, a group of creation scientists set out ols explore the question of why radiometric dating methods give inflated age estimates.

    We know they do because of the aforementioned tests on rocks whose origins were observed. But why? Which of the three main assumptions initial old are known, rate of decay is known, the system is close is false?

    Creation Radiometric Dating and the Age of the Earth | Biblical Science Institute

    To answer this question, several creation geologists and physicists came together to form the RATE research initiative R adioisotopes and the A ge of T he E arth. This multi-year research project engaged in several different avenues of study, and found some fascinating results. As mentioned above, the isochron Howw uses some mathematical techniques in an attempt to estimate the initial conditions and assess the closed-ness of the system.

    However, neither it nor the model-age method allow for the possibility that radioactive decay might have occurred at a different rate in the past. In other words, all radiometric dating methods assume that the half-life of any given radioactive element has always been the same as it is today. If that assumption is false, then all radiometric age estimates will be unreliable.

    As it turns out, there is compelling evidence that the half-lives of certain according radioactive HHow were much radioactive in the past. This may be the main reason why radiometric dating often gives vastly inflated age estimates. First, a bit of background information is in order. Most physicists had assumed that radioactive half-lives have always been what they are today.

    Many experiments have confirmed that most forms of radioactive decay are independent of temperature, pressure, external environment, etc. In other words, the half-life of carbon is years, and there is nothing you can do to change it. Given the impossibility of altering these half-lives in a dating, it made sense for scientists to assume that Eaarth half-lives have always been the same throughout earth history.

    How old is Earth? | Space

    But we now know that this is wrong. In fact, it is very wrong. More recently, scientists have been able to change the half-lives of some forms of radioactive decay in a laboratory by drastic amounts. However, by ionizing the Rhenium removing all its electronsscientists were able to reduce the half-life to only 33 years!

    In other words, the Rhenium decays over 1 billion times faster under such conditions. Thus, any age estimates based on Rhenium-Osmium decay may be vastly inflated. The RATE research initiative found compelling evidence that other radioactive elements dating had much shorter half-lives in the past. Several lines of evidence suggest this. But for brevity and clarity, I will mention only one. This involves the decay of uranium into lead Unlike the potassium-argon decay, the uranium-lead decay is not a one-step process.

    Rather, it is a step process. Uranium decays into thorium, which is also radioactive and decays into polonium, which decays into uranium, and so on, eventually resulting in lead, which is stable.

    Eight of these fourteen decays release an alpha-particle: the nucleus of according helium radioactive which consists of two protons and two neutrons. The helium nucleus quickly attracts a couple of electrons from the environment to become a neutral helium atom. So, for every one atom of uranium that converts into lead, eight helium atoms are produced.

    Helium gas is therefore a byproduct of uranium decay. And since helium is a gas, it can leak through the rocks and will eventually escape into the atmosphere.

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